Mon the 5th Waning Moon of Kattikā B.E.2559, November 30, A.D.2015 Year of the Goat
Jakarta, 30 November 2015 – The Cambodian government must immediately reinstate Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) President Sam Rainsy and Vice President Kem Sokha to their positions in the National Assembly, drop all charges against Rainsy, and take measures to ensure the security and freedom of opposition MPs and activists, ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights (APHR) said today. (more…)
Sun the 4th Waning Moon of Kattikā B.E.2559, November 29, A.D.2015 Year of the Goat
AFP By Guy Jackson
Paris (AFP) – Hundreds of thousands of people rallied around the world Sunday on the eve of a Paris summit aimed at averting catastrophic climate change, but violent clashes in the French capital soured the show of people power.
How much CO2 we have used up and what more we can use before global warming spirals out of control. 135 x 79 mm (AFP Photo/Esther Sanchez). Courtesy AFP
(Pali: Tipiṭaka) is a Sanskrit word meaning Three Baskets. It is the traditional term used by Buddhist traditions to describe their various canons of scriptures. The Tripiṭaka traditionally contains three “baskets” of teachings: a Sūtra Piṭaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Sutta Pitaka), a Vinaya Piṭaka (Sanskrit and Pali) and an Abhidharma Piṭaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Abhidhamma Piṭaka).
Courtesy the Buddhanet
The three categories
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Tripitaka comprises the three main categories of texts that is the Buddhist canon. The three parts of the Pāli canon are not as contemporary as the traditional Buddhist account seems to suggest: the Sūtra Piṭaka is older than the Vinaya Piṭaka, and the Abhidharma Piṭaka represents scholastic developments originated at least two centuries after the other two parts of the canon. The Vinaya Piṭaka appears to have grown gradually as a commentary and justification of the monastic code (Prātimokṣa), which presupposes a transition from a community of wandering mendicants (the Sūtra Piṭaka period ) to a more sedentary monastic community (the Vinaya Piṭaka period). Even within the Sūtra Piṭaka it is possible to detect older and later texts.
Rules and regulations of monastic life that range from dress code and dietary rules to prohibitions of certain personal conducts.
Mahayana sutras and Sutta Pitaka
The Buddha delivered all His sermons in local language of northern India. These sermons were collected during 1st assembly just after the death of the Buddha. Later these teachings were translated into Sanskrit.
Philosophical and psychological discourse and interpretation of Buddhist doctrine. Written by Upagupta.
In Indian Buddhist schools
Each of the Early Buddhist Schools likely had their own recensions of the Tripiṭaka. According to some sources, there were some Indian schools of Buddhism that had five or seven piṭakas.
The Mahāsāṃghika Vinaya was translated by Buddhabhadra and Faxian in 416 CE, and is preserved in Chinese translation (Taishō Tripiṭaka 1425).
The 6th century CE Indian monk Paramārtha wrote that 200 years after the parinirvāṇa of the Buddha, much of the Mahāsāṃghika school moved north of Rājagṛha, and were divided over whether the Mahāyāna sūtras should be incorporated formally into their Tripiṭaka. According to this account, they split into three groups based upon the relative manner and degree to which they accepted the authority of these Mahāyāna texts. Paramārtha states that the Kukkuṭika sect did not accept the Mahāyāna sūtras as buddhavacana (“words of the Buddha”), while the Lokottaravāda sect and the Ekavyāvahārika sect did accept the Mahāyāna sūtras as buddhavacana. Also in the 6th century CE, Avalokitavrata writes of the Mahāsāṃghikas using a “Great Āgama Piṭaka,” which is then associated with Mahāyāna sūtras such as the Prajñāparamitā and the Daśabhūmika Sūtra.
According to some sources, abhidharma was not accepted as canonical by the Mahāsāṃghika school.
The Theravādin Dīpavaṃsa, for example, records that the Mahāsāṃghikas had no abhidharma. However, other sources indicate that there were such collections of abhidharma, and the Chinese pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang both mention Mahāsāṃghika abhidharma. On the basis of textual evidence as well as inscriptions at Nāgārjunakoṇḍā, Joseph Walser concludes that at least some Mahāsāṃghika sects probably had an abhidharma collection, and that it likely contained five or six books
The Caitikas included a number of sub-sects including the Pūrvaśailas, Aparaśailas, Siddhārthikas, and Rājagirikas. In the 6th century CE, Avalokitavrata writes that Mahāyāna sūtras such as the Prajñāparamitā and others are chanted by the Aparaśailas and the Pūrvaśailas. Also in the 6th century CE, Bhāvaviveka speaks of the Siddhārthikas using a Vidyādhāra Piṭaka, and the Pūrvaśailas and Aparaśailas both using a Bodhisattva Piṭaka, implying collections of Mahāyāna texts within these Caitika schools.
The Bahuśrutīya school is said to have included a Bodhisattva Piṭaka in their canon. The Satyasiddhi Śāstra, also called the Tattvasiddhi Śāstra, is an extant abhidharma from the Bahuśrutīya school. This abhidharma was translated into Chinese in sixteen fascicles (Taishō Tripiṭaka 1646). Its authorship is attributed to Harivarman, a third-century monk from central India. Paramārtha cites this Bahuśrutīya abhidharma as containing a combination of Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrines, and Joseph Walser agrees that this assessment is correct.
The Prajñaptivādins held that the Buddha’s teachings in the various piṭakas were nominal (Skt. prajñapti), conventional (Skt. saṃvṛti), and causal (Skt. hetuphala). Therefore all teachings were viewed by the Prajñaptivādins as being of provisional importance, since they cannot contain the ultimate truth. It has been observed that this view of the Buddha’s teachings is very close to the fully developed position of the Mahāyāna sūtras.
Scholars at present have “a nearly complete collection of sūtras from the Sarvāstivāda school” thanks to a recent discovery in Afghanistan of roughly two-thirds of Dīrgha Āgama in Sanskrit. The Madhyama Āgama (Taishō Tripiṭaka 26) was translated by Gautama Saṃghadeva, and is available in Chinese. The Saṃyukta Āgama (Taishō Tripiṭaka 99) was translated by Guṇabhadra, also available in Chinese translation. The Sarvāstivāda is therefore the only early school besides the Theravada for which we have a roughly complete Sūtra Piṭaka. The Sārvāstivāda Vinaya Piṭaka is also extant in Chinese translation, as are the seven books of the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma Piṭaka. There is also the encyclopedic Abhidharma Mahāvibhāṣa Śāstra (Taishō Tripiṭaka 1545), which was held as canonical by the Vaibhāṣika Sarvāstivādins of northwest India.
Portions of the Mūlasārvāstivāda Tripiṭaka survive in Tibetan translation and Nepalese manuscripts. The relationship of the Mūlasārvāstivāda school to Sarvāstivāda school is indeterminate; their vinayas certainly differed but it is not clear that their Sūtra Piṭaka did. The Gilgit manuscripts may contain Āgamas from the Mūlasārvāstivāda school in Sanskrit. The Mūlasārvāstivāda Vinaya Piṭaka survives in Tibetan translation and also in Chinese translation (Taishō Tripiṭaka 1442). The Gilgit manuscripts also contain vinaya texts from the Mūlasārvāstivāda school in Sanskrit.
A complete version of the Dīrgha Āgama (Taishō Tripiṭaka 1) of the Dharmaguptaka school was translated into Chinese by Buddhayaśas and Zhu Fonian (竺佛念) in the Later Qin dynasty, dated to 413 CE. It contains 30 sūtras in contrast to the 34 suttas of the Theravadin Dīgha Nikāya. A. K. Warder also associates the extant Ekottara Āgama (Taishō Tripiṭaka 125) with the Dharmaguptaka school, due to the number of rules for monastics, which corresponds to the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya. The Dharmaguptaka Vinaya is also extant in Chinese translation (Taishō Tripiṭaka 1428), and Buddhist monastics in East Asia adhere to the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya.
The Dharmaguptaka Tripiṭaka is said to have contained a total of five piṭakas. These included a Bodhisattva Piṭaka and a Mantra Piṭaka (Ch. 咒藏), also sometimes called a Dhāraṇī Piṭaka. According to the 5th century Dharmaguptaka monk Buddhayaśas, the translator of the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya into Chinese, the Dharmaguptaka school had assimilated the Mahāyāna Tripiṭaka (Ch. 大乘三藏).
The Mahīśāsaka Vinaya is preserved in Chinese translation (Taishō Tripiṭaka 1421), translated by Buddhajīva and Zhu Daosheng in 424 CE.
Small portions of the Tipiṭaka of the Kāśyapīya school survive in Chinese translation. An incomplete Chinese translation of the Saṃyukta Āgama of the Kāśyapīya school by an unknown translator circa the Three Qin (三秦) period (352-431 CE) survives.
In the Theravada school
The complete Tripiṭaka set of the Theravāda school is written and preserved in Pali in the Pali Canon. Buddhists of the Theravāda school use the Pali variant Tipitaka to refer what is commonly known in English as the Pali Canon. Courtesy wikipedia
The renewed tensions between the ruling Cambodian People’s Party and opposition Cambodia National Rescue Party threaten to push Cambodia towards a “dangerous tipping point” if not resolved, the UN’s human rights envoy has said.
UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, Rhona Smith
Her words came as CNRP president Sam Rainsy, a warrant issued for his arrest, left on a diplomatic mission to garner support in Europe.
“Any intensification of current events could bring Cambodia to a dangerous tipping point,” UN human rights rapporteur Rhona Smith said in a statement released yesterday.
Since the arrest warrant was issued, Rainsy has repeated the allegations that led to his defamation conviction – that Foreign Minister Hor Namhong was responsible for atrocities at a Khmer Rouge prison camp in the late 1970s.
He has also accused Prime Minister Hun Sen of working to destroy the opposition ahead of planned elections in 2017 and 2018.
Smith said that the increasingly bitter feud has gone hand-in-hand with an increase in rights abuses, including “incidences of violence; intimidation of individuals; and . . . offensive language in the political discourse”.
The rapporteur stressed that she would not interfere in Cambodian politics – an accusation levelled by the ruling party against previous holders of the post who criticised CPP actions – nor would she comment on the legal case against Rainsy.
But she added that it was of “great concern” that there were recently “multiple alleged violations of peaceful exercise of freedoms of opinion and expression, as well as the right to participate in political life”.
Already facing a two-year jail term if he returns to the Kingdom for the defamation ruling, Rainsy was summoned for questioning last week as an “accomplice” to forgery for allegedly allowing a “fake” version of a 1979 Cambodia and Vietnam border treaty to be published on his Facebook page.
And last month, three military officials were charged with the beating of two opposition lawmakers outside parliament after a protest against CNRP deputy president Kem Sokha.
Smith added that she had appealed privately to Hun Sen and Rainsy to return to the so-called “culture of dialogue”, a political detente that ended almost a year of stalemate following the 2013 general election.
Government spokesman Phay Siphan blamed the CNRP for the breakdown in the relationship, saying that the opposition leaders’ fiery anti-CPP rhetoric to supporters overseas had preached “rebellion”.
CNRP spokesman Yim Sovann said that the party was “deeply concerned with the deteriorating political environment” and would “continue to appeal to the CPP to ensure a calm environment conducive to politics”.
Tue the 14th Waxing Moon of Kattikā B.E.2559, November 24, A.D.2015 Year of the Goat
ថាច់ សេដ្ឋា: ខ្ញុំសូមស្នើបងប្អូនរួមឈាមទាំងអស់ មេត្តាដាក់រូបសញ្ញា ឈប់ប្រើប្រាស់ទំនិញ និងសេវាផ្សេងៗរបស់យួនឲ្យបានគ្រប់គ្នា។
Thach Setha: I appeal to you and all Khmer compatriots to change their FB pages to this boycott sticker to stop buying and using Vietnamese products.
Boycott, stop buying, stop using Vietnamese products and services.
Way you could help your country.
WE, KHMERS, UNITED TO BOYCOTT VIETNAMESE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES, STOP BUYING, PURCHASING AND USING VIETNAMESE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES.
When you continue buying and using Vietnamese products and services, you continue supporting Vietnam’s aggression toward Kampuchea (Cambodia) and encroaching on the territories and fabricating Khmer history.
Thach Setha, “Cambodia may lose a few benefits from this boycotting, but Vietnam will lose a lot more.”
At the East Asia Summit Sunday in Kuala Lumpur, the new organization, called the “ASEAN Community,” said its members will collaborate to allow more unrestricted movement of capital and labor in a region that’s home to upwards of 600 million people, more populous than North America or the European Union, reports Voice of America (VOA).
The ASEAN member countries are Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
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“Our ASEAN way has guided us and will continue to be our compass as we seek to realize a politically cohesive, economically integrated, socially responsible and a truly people-oriented, people-centered rules-based ASEAN,” said Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak at the weekend forum that included participants like US President Barack Obama, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev of Russia, Japan Prime Minister Shinzō Abe and Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India, according to the Malaysian Insider.
In a document that outlines the organization’s goals, the members agree to cooperate in areas like combating terrorism and drug and human trafficking; increasing maritime safety and security; and encouraging economic growth across borders.
Though there has been some progress in recent decades on the lifting of tariffs for more unrestricted trade in the region, reports the BBC, progress is slow.
Part of the reason is that the diversity of wealth – the economic gap between poor countries like Cambodia and wealthy ones like Singapore, for example – and of government styles among member countries makes collaboration challenging, say those who worry that the announcement may prove purely symbolic.
Though forming of the ASEAN Community is a significant step, “It will not lead to a ‘big bang’ moment in terms of regional integration,” Guy Harvey-Samuel, chief executive officer of HSBC bank in Singapore told Bloomberg.
“Instead, we are likely to see a slow initial burn that will become increasingly brighter as integration begins to get traction,” he explained.
Successfully integrating ASEAN economies would help them compete with regional powers like China and India by creating the world’s seventh-largest single market, reports VOA.
According to Reuters, the ASEAN countries’ combined economic output is $2.6 trillion.
“In practice, we have virtually eliminated tariff barriers between us,” said Mr. Najib, the summit host, according to Reuters. “Now we have to assure freer movements and removal of barriers that hinder growth and investment.”
Najib called the establishment of the ASEAN Community “a landmark achievement” that comes more than a dozen years after the concept was first proposed.
The organization will officially launch on December 31.
ASEAN was first formed on August 8, 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand to accelerate political, economic and cultural cooperation among Southeast Asian nations. But the organization has faced endemic corruption that has stifled progress.
Observers are hoping that today’s announcement will help advance the mission of the organization in earnest.
“Time will tell if today’s signing ceremony is just more style over substance,” Curtis Chin, a former US ambassador to the Asian Development Bank told VOA. “But come January 1, the ASEAN Community will be much less than today’s soaring rhetoric, but certainly much more than ever envisioned decades past.”
1. Any Vietnamese citizen acting in collusion with a foreign country with a view to causing harm to the independence, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of the Fatherland, the national defense forces, the socialist regime or the State of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam shall be sentenced to between 12 and 20 years of imprisonment, life imprisonment or capital punishment.
2. In the event of many extenuating circumstances, the offenders shall be subject to between 7 and 15 years of imprisonment.
3. The person takes action in preparation of committing this crime shall be subject to between 1 and 5 years of imprisonment. [NEW]
Sat the 11th Waxing Moon of Kattikā B.E.2559, November 21, A.D.2015 Year of the Goat
Reuters, November 20, 2015
Geneva – The United Nations voiced alarm on Friday about the fate of nine North Koreans feared to have been deported from Vietnam via China back to their homeland, saying they might face torture or even execution.
Forcibly sending refugees back to a country where they could suffer persecution, a practice known as “refoulement”, is banned under international treaties signed by China.
“We are alarmed at reports that nine North Korean nationals, including a one-year-old infant and a teenager, were arrested in Vietnam last month and subsequently transferred to China,” U.N. human rights spokeswoman Ravina Shamdasani told a briefing.
“There are fears that they may be – or may already have been – repatriated to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea where they would be at risk of very serious human rights violations.”
The group were arrested in Vietnam on Oct. 22 and are thought to have been sent to the Chinese city of Shenyang, close to the North Korean border. In recent years many North Koreans have fled their country into China, traveled on to southeast Asia and then to South Korea or other countries.
Chinese authorities are believed to have been escorting the nine North Koreans, Shamdasani said.
“This series of events strongly suggests that the group is at imminent risk of being repatriated to the DPRK (North Korea) – and we are gravely concerned that they may already have been returned,” she said.
“We urge the Chinese and Vietnamese authorities to publicly clarify the fate of the nine North Korean nationals. We further urge all concerned governments to refrain from forcibly returning individuals who have fled the DPRK.”
A major U.N. human rights investigation found last year that North Koreans forcibly repatriated to Pyongyang are commonly subjected to torture, detention, execution, forced abortions or sexual violence, Shamdasani said.
The U.N. Committee against Torture met in Geneva this week to review China’s record and raised concerns about its practice of returning North Koreans.
“Some illegal immigrants from DPRK entering China’s territory for economic reasons do not meet conditions stipulated in the Convention relating to the status of refugees,” Xu Hong, a senior official in China’s foreign ministry, told the U.N. body of experts.
Some “criminals” had abused the principle of asylum in an “attempt to prolong and even escape extradition or repatriation”, Xu said.
(Reporting by Stephanie Nebehay; editing by Andrew Roche)